Types of gum disease
There are two main types of gum disease:
- Gingivitis – early-stage gum disease affecting the surface layers of the gum
- Periodontitis – more advanced gum disease affecting the deeper layers of gums, teeth and bone
How it happens
When plaque builds up on the gum line, it makes the perfect conditions for the type of bacteria that causes gum disease.
The gum becomes inflamed and may look red and swollen around the tooth.
If not treated, the inflammation can destroy the tissue fibres and bone that hold teeth in place, leading to tooth loss.
See an oral health professional if you suspect gum disease. Early treatment can save teeth at risk!
What can you do?
If you support someone to care for their mouth:
| Look out for the signs of gum disease
| Reduce risk by providing support to
Gum disease (gingivitis)
- Bright red gums that bleed easily when touched or brushed
- Bad breath
- May be little or no pain
Severe gum disease (periodontitis)
- Gums appear to ‘shrink’ away from the teeth
- Loose teeth, Sensitive teeth or bad breath
- Brush teeth and along the gum line twice a day to remove plaque
- Drink tap water
- Ask if any medications they take reduce saliva (dry mouth); discuss with an oral health professional
- Have regular dental check-ups
- Quit smoking
When gums are swollen or bleed a little bit, you might think that it’s best to stop brushing.
In fact the opposite is true.
If you support someone with their daily mouth care, encourage them to keep brushing to get rid of the plaque that is causing the problem.
Soon the gums should look and feel better. If not, see an oral health professional.